السبت، 16 مايو 2009

Assessment of Psychosocial Aspects of Immigrants in AL-Najaf Refugee camp.

Haider H. Ali .Masters Degree in Psychiatric Nursing , Ministry of Health /Medical city *
Dr. Shirooq M. Jacob.Assitant Professor, University of Baghdad/College of Nursing
ان معظم المهاجرين يعانون من اضطرابات نفسية من النوع الشديد مثل الكأبة والقلق نتيجة تعرضهم الى ضروف حياتية قاسية.والدراسة الحاليية دراسة وصفية تحليلية اجريت للفترة من الثاني من نيسان عام 2008 ولغاية الثاني من تشرين الاول من عام 2008
الهـدف: لاجل تقييم الجوانب النفسية- الاجتماعية للمهاجرين في مخيمات اللاجئين في النجف .
المنهجيـة: جمعت عينة البحث بالطريقة العشوائية – الغير احتمالية ل 100 مهاجر سكنوا في مخيمات اللاجئين في محافظة النجف للفترة من 2006 الى 2008 نتيجة الوضع الخاص بالعراق.
بنيت الاستبانة لغرض تحقيق اهداف الدراسة والمتكونة من ثلاثة اجزاء رئيسية ب 40 فقرة .هذه الأجزاء هي , المواصفات الشخصية – الديموغرافية للمهاجرين,والجوانب النفــــسية ( القلق والكآبة )و الجوانب الاجتماعية لتحديد الثبات والمصداقية للاستبانة من خلال الدراسة المصغرة وتوصية الخبراء . وجمعت البيانات الخاصة بالبحث من خلال الاستبانة ومن خلال المقابلة كطرق لجمع العينة. تم تحليل البيانات من خلال التحليل الاحصائي الوصفي [ التكرار, النسبة المئوية, والتحليل الاحصائي الاستنتاجي].
النتائـج: الى وجود اضطرابات نفسية من المستوى الشديد عند الناس المهاجرين مع ضعف الجانب الاجتماعي .اضافة الى ذلك وجود ارتباط معنوي عالي بين الجوانب النفسية والجوانب الاجتماعية , القلق والكأبة .كذلك وجود ارتباط معنوي بين الجوانب النفسية مع العمر, المهنة,عدد افراد الاسرة .
التوصـيات: أوصى الباحث والانتباه المبكر للمهاجرين ذوي المشاكل النفسية‘و خصوصاَ الذين هم بالواجهة أو من يتعرض الى شد نفسي خلال الهجرة.

Most of immigrants suffer from severe type of psychological disturbance like depression and anxiety for their exposure to markedly stressful life events.
The present study descriptive analytic study was carried out from April 2nd, 2008 through October 2nd, 2008.
Objectives: To assess the psychosocial aspects of immigrants in AL-Najaf refugee camp.
Methodology: A non probability accidental (purposive) sample of 100 immigrants who were living at AL-Najaf refugee camp when they moved from their original cities in 2006 because of the security situation in Iraq were studied.
A questionnaire was constructed to achieve the study objectives ,which consisted of three major parts with (40) items .These parts were the demographic characteristics, psychological aspects (depression and anxiety)and social aspects of these immigrants .
Data were analyzed through the application of a descriptive statistical analysis which includes percentage, frequencies and inferential statistical analysis; parson correlation coefficient and Chi-Square.
Results: The findings of the study indicated that there was a severe psychological distress and poor social aspects among immigrants, and there was a significant relationship between the psychological aspects and social aspects, depression and anxiety. There is a significant relationship between the psychological aspects with age, occupation and family member.
Recommendations: The researcher recommend that early attention to the immigrants with psychological problems especially to those forced or exposed to many stressors during immigration.

Migration both voluntary and forced is increasing all over the world. People are moving in larger numbers faster and further than at any other time in history, This is happening at a time when many countries are ill-prepared to deal with changing demography and when policies and attitudes to population movement and immigration are hardening. (1).
Immigration has conceptualized the adaptation of immigrants to their new cultural and social environment as a multifaceted process involving different patterns and strategies. From a broad perspective, adaptation is a process of change and adjustment to new environmental conditions. (2).
The strategy of integration predicts more positive outcomes in psychological and socio-cultural adaptation and especially marginalization which are often associated with poor adaptation, which can lead to serious psychological disturbances, including clinical depression, anxiety, and other mental disorders(3)..
The Psychological adaptation has been considered an important issue for immigrants' health , immigrants suffer from higher levels of emotional distress and poorer mental health than the host populations. Poor adaptation patterns among immigrants relate to increased levels of depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and other psychological problems (4,5)..
Despite the potential magnitude of the problem, the psychosocial health of migrant's remains poorly addressed and little is known about the dynamics involved or about what should be done to prevent or manage mental health problems related to migration(6)..
Migration is not a new phenomenon, early hunting and gathering societies migrated constantly, and nomadic herdsmen in many parts of the world still move routinely. (7).

A descriptive-analytic study using the technique of assessment; was conducted on immigrants from April 2nd 2008 to May 2nd 2008. The study was carried out to assess the psychosocial aspects, psychological aspects which include; (depression and anxiety ) and to determine the relationship between psychosocial aspects of immigrants and certain variables. The study was conducted on immigrants. They were selected from AL-Najaf refugee camp witch located in AL-Najaf governorate. This camp contains approximately (750) immigrant come from different Iraqi cities. A purposive (Non-probability) sample of (100) immigrants was selected from AL-Najaf Refugee Camps.The immigrants were selected according to the following criteria:
1- Both sexes (male and female).2- Age from 18 year to over 67 years.3- Immigrants were free from any psychiatric disorders.4- They migrated voluntarily and involuntarily from different cities.
The questionnaire was consisted of three parts which are distributed as follows.(part1)This part includes the demographic characteristics of the sample it consists of (8) items which include: age, gender, the level of education, marital status, occupation, monthly income, immigration period and family members.(part2)consists of 25 items measuring the psychological status, 15 items assess symptoms of depression; and the other 10 items assess symptoms of anxiety.(part3) This part consists of (15) items measuring the social status .
These items was rated according to three Likert rating scale (never 1,sometimes 2 and always 3 ) the severity of the psychosocial aspects are measure by score of psychosocial levels as follows.
1. Depression: No .100, Minimum .15, Maximum .45.
Mild ( 15 – 24)
Moderate ( 25 – 34)
Severe (35 – 45)
2. Anxiety: No .100, Minimum .10, Maximum .30.
Mild ( 10 – 15)
Moderate ( 16 – 22)
Severe (23 – 30)
3. Social: No .100, Minimum .15, Maximum .45.
Good ( 15 – 24)
Intermediate ( 25 – 34)
Weak (35 – 45)
Pilot Study:A pilot study was carried out on (10) immigrants in order to determine the reliability of the questionnaire. This sample was selected in different age, gender, educational level, marital status, education
level, occupation, monthly income, immigration period, family member. The Pilot study was carried out through the period of January 25th 2008 to February 10th 2008. The pilot study aimed to achieve the following:
1- Determine the reliability of the questionnaire.2-Estimate the average time and effort of the data collection of each subject, and it took around (20) minutes for each person.3-Determine the instrument structure for the subjects understanding of the instrument and required modification.
1-Cohen S., and Wills T.: Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis, Psychology Bull journal, 1985,Vol.98,pp.10–15.
2- Berry, J., Poortinga,Y.,Segall, M.H.And Dasen, P.R.: Cross-Cultural Psychology: Research and Applications (2nd ed.) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2002, PP.45-55.
3-Berry, J .: Acculturation and health: Theory and research" in S.S. Kazarian and D.R. Evans (eds.) Cultural Clinical Psychology: Theory, Research and Practice, Oxford University, 1998, pp. 39-57.
4-Aroian, K. and Norris, A.: Resilience, stress, and depression among Russian immigrants, Journal of Nursing Research, 2000,Vol 22,No.1,pp.54-67.
5-Pernice, R., A. Trlin, A.: Henderson and N. North Employment and mental health of three groups of immigrants to New Zealand, New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 2000,Vol 29,No 1,pp.24-29.
6-Mallett R,Leff J,Bhugra D,Pang D,Zhao J.:Social environment, ethnicity and schizophrenia.A case-control study. Socio Psychiatry Epidemiol,2002,Vol 37, pp.:329–335.
7-Rosenfield S.: Factors contributing to the subjective quality of life of the chronic mentally
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بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
"وما أوتيتم من العلم إلا قليلا" صدق الله العلي العظيم
نرحب بالجميع في موقعنا الجديد الخاص بتمريض الصحة النفسية والعقلية، وأملنا أن يكون بداية انطلاقة نحو تطوير تمريض الصحة النفسية والعقلية في العراق. راجين من الجميع ابداء مشورتهم ومساعدتهم العلمية كوننا حديثي عهد بهذه التجربة. ونستقبل كافة الطروحات نقدية كانت أم تشجيعية بروح رياضية راجين من الله أن يديم علينا المعرفة.
والسلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته

Hello every one,

We are happy that you have visited our blog, we are psychiatric nurses from Iraq, we are very interested in psychiatry, and our aim is to improve psychiatric nursing in Iraq, and we hope that we connect via our blog to those who share us our interst.

Haider Hamza Ali (Master Degree in Psychiatric Nursing)

Safee Dakil Nawam (Bachalor Science in Psychiatric Nursing)